where in the world or environment can you find smallpox? how is this virus transmitted from one to another? what are the possible symptoms that accompany this virus? what is the prospect of recovery? how does the virus attack the cell and reproduce? how can smallpox be treated?
The following info was taken from Medscape which is a website for medical professionals regarding smallpox and should answer all your questions: Background Smallpox is an acute contagious disease caused by the variola virus (Poxvirus variolae), a member of the Poxviridae family of the genus Orthopoxvirus. Virologists have speculated that it evolved from an African rodent poxvirus 10 millennia ago. Because of the absence of an animal vector, communities had to reach a critical population (estimated at 200,000 around 3000 BC) before endemic smallpox could be established. The name is derived from the Latin word for "spotted" and refers to the raised bumps on the face and body of the patient. Poxviridae are linear double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm. Poxviridae consist of 2 families: Chordopoxvirinae, which infect vertebrates, and Entomopoxvirinae, which infect insects. Vaccinia virus, monkeypox virus, and cowpox virus are other viruses within the Orthopoxvirus genus that infect humans. The two classic varieties of smallpox are variola major and variola minor, each of which confers immunity against the other. Variola major is the more severe and common form of smallpox. It causes more extensive rash and fever. Variola major smallpox has 4 subtypes, as follows: Ordinary smallpox - The most common form, which accounts for 90% or more of cases Modified smallpox - A mild form that develops in previously vaccinated persons Flat smallpox (malignant smallpox) - A severe variety in which lesions do not project above the skin surface Hemorrhagic smallpox (fulminant smallpox) - A rare, very severe, highly fatal variety of the disease in which hemorrhages develop in the skin and mucous membranes Variola minor is less common and much less virulent and was previously found mainly in South Africa, South America, Europe, and Australia. Variola sine eruptione (variola sine exanthemata) is another less common form. In addition, a pharyngeal form develops in immunized individuals; this form presents with a spotty enanthem over the soft palate, uvula, and pharynx. An influenzalike form exists but rarely results in a rash. Both of these forms are relatively mild, usually affect individuals who have been previously immunized, and do not cause mortality. A pulmonary form characterized by severe symptoms, cyanosis, and bilateral infiltrates has been described in individuals with little or no immunity. The mortality rate is undetermined. During the first half of the 20th century, all outbreaks of smallpox in Asia and most in Africa were due to variola major. The case fatality rate was 20% or more in unvaccinated persons. Variola minor carried a case fatality rate of 1% or less and was endemic in some countries in Europe, North America, South America, and many parts of Africa. Smallpox outbreaks have occurred sporadically for thousands of years, but, after a successful global vaccination program, the disease has now been eradicated. The last case of smallpox in the United States was reported in 1949. The last naturally occurring case in the world was seen in Somalia in 1977. After the disease was eliminated from the world, routine smallpox vaccination was stopped because prevention was no longer necessary. The long-term consequence of eradication is that much of the world's population is now unvaccinated and at risk for infection. Pathophysiology Smallpox is a double-stranded, 135- to 375-kilobase (kb) DNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm of the host cell and forms B-type inclusion bodies (Guarnieri bodies), unlike herpes viruses, which replicate in the nucleus. The orthopoxviruses are among the largest and most complex of all viruses. The virion is brick-shaped with a diameter of approximately 200 nm. The virus is transmitted mainly through the airborne route and adheres via droplet spread of viral particles onto the mucosal surfaces of the oropharyngeal and respiratory tract. This transmission occurs through close personal contact (eg, face-to-face within 6 ft, household contact) for extended periods. Respiratory spread over long distances (eg, from one hospital floor to another) has been reported. Exposure to clothing or blankets contaminated with infected material can also result in disease. Smallpox has a lower transmission rate than measles, pertussis, and influenza. Transmission through casual and limited contact has been reported in military personnel. Although rare, airborne (ie, suspended viral particles) and fomite transmission can occur. Humans are the only natural hosts of variola; nonhuman animals and insects do not carry the variola virus. Pregnant women tend to develop hemorrhagic disease, but intrauterine infection occurs in even the mildest maternal infections, resulting in premature delivery and high fetal and neonatal mortality rates. Implantation of just a few virions into the oropharynx or respiratory tracts can cause infection. The virus infects macrophages during the first 72 hours of the incubation phase. The virus migrates and multiplies in the regional lymph nodes, resulting in asymptomatic viremia by the fourth day. The virus multiplies in the spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes, resulting in a symptomatic secondary viremia (ie, fever, toxemia) by the eighth day. Finally, the virus re-enters the blood in leukocytes, producing fever and toxemia, and then passes from leukocytes to adjacent cells in small blood vessels of the dermis and beneath the oropharyngeal mucosa, leading to the initial onset of the enanthem and exanthem, at which point (approximately day 14) the patient becomes infectious. The spleen, lymph nodes, kidneys, liver, bone marrow, and other viscera may also contain large amounts of virus. Incubation periods are typically 10-12 days but can range from 7-17 days. Intrauterine infections rarely occur and usually have shorter incubation periods. Patients exposed through routes other than the person-to-person respiratory route also have shorter incubation periods. Prior immunization, vaccinia immune globulin (VIG), and, possibly, antiviral chemotherapy may extend the incubation period. Patients with smallpox are sometimes contagious upon the onset of fever (prodromal phase) but are most contagious upon rash onset. Infected persons are contagious until the last smallpox scab separates. The highest intensity of viral shedding is during the first 10 days of the rash. Infection rates among close contacts of infected persons have been reported to be between 37 and 88%. Survivors of natural infection acquire lifelong immunity. Frequency United States The last outbreak of smallpox in the United States was in 1947, when 12 cases were reported in New York City. In the United States, routine vaccination of the civilian population ended in 1972 and in 1990 for the US military. The most current statistics indicate that approximately 41% of the resident US population is younger than 30 years, most of whom have not been vaccinated against smallpox. The immune status of those who were vaccinated 30 or more years ago has not been satisfactorily established, but some evidence shows residual immunity. Reports from the late 19th century indicate that vaccination 20-30 years previously may not protect against infection but often prevents death. No conclusive studies have shown whether people with residual immunity can transmit smallpox to nonvaccinated individuals. International The last endemic case of variola major was reported in Bangladesh in 1975; the last endemic case of variola minor was reported in Somalia in 1977. In 1979, a laboratory accident in Birmingham, England, resulted in a single case of the disease. Smallpox is authorized to be kept for research purposes only at 2 World Health Organization reference laboratories. One is the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Ga, and the other is the State Research Centre of Virology and Biotechnology, also known as the VECTOR Institute, in Koltsovo, Russia. Routine smallpox vaccinations was stopped in 1972 and smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980 after a worldwide vaccination program. In 2002, The Washington Post reported that the Central Intelligence Agency identified possible clandestine smallpox virus stocks in 4 other nations. Mortality/Morbidity Variola major infection carries an overall fatality rate of approximately 30% (range, 15-50%) in an unvaccinated population and 3% in a vaccinated population. However, flat smallpox carries a 45.4% mortality rate in patients with discrete lesions who have been immunized. Unimmunized patients with confluent disease have a 99.3% mortality rate. Patients with hemorrhagic smallpox have a mortality rate of more than 96%, regardless of immunization status. Variola minor infection is a less common type of smallpox and a much less severe disease, with a death rate of 1% or less. Age Age distribution mirrors that of the general population, although residual immunity from previous vaccination could potentially decrease disease in the older population.
In a lab or in vaccines ( vaccinia). There's no treatment, but so far there's no disease either. The concern mainly is with bioterrorism, meaninig terrorists giving the people smallpox, probably a recombinant or mutant strain. This hasn't happened yet, though. People used to get a rash that different from chicken pox all the lesions would be at the same stage. contact with a lesion, including the one from the vaccine may transmit it. Therefore people who have close family members with low immune systems (including pregnancy) should not get the vaccine. Nowadays only people who get the vaccine are in the military or health care workers.
Oysters, a holiday tradition, are heaven on the half shell - Kansas City Star
Kansas City StarOysters, a holiday tradition, are heaven on the half shellKansas City StarIt takes great habitat to make great oysters, so when you taste a really superb one, you can take pleasure in knowing that you are tasting the untamed health and beauty of nature. An oyster doesn't taste good because of a food scientist's lecithin. It.and more »
You may become infected with herpes if your skin, vagina, penis. Over time, the number of outbreaks may decrease. Once you have HSV-2. Finding out that you have herpes may cause you to feel bad about yourself or about sex.. If you have an outbreak near your due date. But there are to treat herpes that can lower the number of herpes outbreaks you have.. How do I find out if I have herpes? If you have symptoms that you think. Between outbreaks: Even if you do not have symptoms, you can still. you do have herpes, it is very important to tell each of your sex partners so they can also Since you have had one outbreak. Telling your partner you have genital herpes may be one of the hardest things about being diagnosed with the disease. As long as you don't have herpes sores on your mouth. or necessarily the best one for you. If your outbreaks are few and far between. If you have an outbreak of oral herpes while you are pregnant, don't worry.
It shouldn't harm your pregnancy. However, after birth, if you have cold sore. If the mother has genital herpes outbreak when she goes into labor. If you suspect you might have herpes you should not have sex until you see doctor. If you do have herpes on your cervix, you will have abnormal Pap smears.. If you are pregnant and you have an active outbreak of herpes. Keep your herpes sores from coming into contact with others and avoid having sex with an uninfected partner whenever you are having genital herpes outbreak or. If woman has genital herpes outbreak when she. you can pass the virus to your partners even when you do not have symptoms. You should tell your current and. Herpes outbreaks can come at the worst times, and sometimes it feels like they'll never go away. Fortunately, lot of research is being done concerning the. Learn about the symptoms of Herpes in men and women, and the percentage of recurrent outbreaks. How long does it take for symptoms to appear and how frequent are they? What Foods to Avoid if You Have Herpes?
. Outbreaks of herpes are usually concentrated in the mucous membrane of lips and genital region but can occur. It's common to feel guilty or ashamed when you are diagnosed with herpes. You may feel that your sex life is ruined. by not having sex during outbreaks and by. During Genital Herpes Outbreak. During Genital Herpes Outbreak Most genital herpes infections that develop on the skin and/or genitals can be managed at home with. If you or someone you know has herpes outbreaks during pregnancy, your health care provider may consider using prescription medication for treatment. WWhat are the Stages of Herpes outbreaks? This explanation of Herpes will help you understand the Herpes Virus much better and the stages of herpes in your body. Do I need to take them all the time or just when I get an outbreak? What do you think about the. to find out what type of herpes it is that you have in your.
If you have frequent cold sore outbreaks then you most likely have Oral Herpes (HSV1).. What Should You Do if You Have Herpes in Mouth Symptoms? If you think you may have herpes, you should watch carefully for these signs.. and you may only be having your first bad outbreak now due to trigger such as stress. If you think you might have herpes, you should see your doctor. He or she can do tests to see if you are infected.. Most people with herpes will have some outbreaks. Living with genital herpes can be hassle. When you have herpes outbreak, it can feel like it takes days out of your life. Click the information link below to. If you think you have anything that resembles herpes, you have to abstain from sexual intercourse or making skin contact. If you think you have an outbreak. Herpes Recurrences (symptoms returning) Answers to Questions about Herpes Outbreaks. What is an outbreak? How common are recurrences? Will I have recurrence? But do you know what herpes is?. Get the facts of herpes symptoms and outbreaks here.
I think i have papilloma on my uvula too. can you please write me so that we. Initial herpes outbreaks can be both painful and traumatic. Most generally, coming to terms with the new diagnosis is the most difficult, but while you are if your partner has herpes and you have never had. If you have an outbreak at the time of labor, your clinician may recommend caesarian section to After your first or "primary" herpes outbreak. Since you already have both kinds of herpes, having sex while your partner has an active sore or is going through viral. You can learn more about outbreaks and what to expect in the Herpes Recurrence section. What should I do if I think I have herpes? If you believe that you have it, you should visit your doctor who. Should an outbreak happen, the herpes rash will be less severe and painful. Share your strategies for managing your herpes outbreaks.
Dear Dr. Tom: I have genital herpes and instead of having the outbreaks on my genitals, I usually get them on my right upper thigh. Is this considered herpes too? So, if you have signs of herpes, see your doctor to find out if you are infected.. Talk with your doctor about what you can do to have fewer future outbreaks. If you are having herpes outbreak, you should NOT have any sexual contact until all sores have healed, the scabs have fallen off, and the skin is normal again. What can you do if you have herpes outbreak? Keep the area clean; Wear cotton underwear; Wear loose fitting clothes; After urinating, wash your genital area with cool water;. but in many cases the person will have more outbreaks. There are two types of HSV.. If you have genital herpes, do you know the person who passed it to you?
I am not suggesting you should do these things or that you will have the. of your uvulitis. Oral Herpes. irritate your uvula when swallowed. If you are in. Stop genital herpes outbreaks. Unique herpes treatment that kills the herpes virus on contact. Unique Topical Anti-Septic Herpes Treatments. Herpes blisters are one of the most common signs of herpes outbreak. Whether you have herpes type 1 or herpes type 2, you will probably get blisters at some Always tell prospective partner if you have herpes and use protection even if you do not have an outbreak.. Be aware if you have sex during an outbreak. Do diet or stress increase the likelihood of genital herpes outbreak? Dr. Peter Leone responds. Stop genital herpes outbreaks. Unique herpes treatment that kills the herpes virus on contact.
Unique Topical Anti-Septic Herpes Treatments. Do you have an outbreak?. Read more: Stop Herpes Outbreaks By Changing the Way You Live. If you would like an effective treatment for symptoms. The first outbreak of herpes can last for several weeks.. If you have herpes, you should also get checked for HIV (AIDS) and other STIs (syphilis. What did you do when you found out you had herpes?. The older you get the less outbreaks you have. The more depress you are the more outbreaks you have. Herpes breakouts aren't always evident. An astounding 80 percent to 90 percent of people don't notice their first outbreak of genital herpes, according to the Mayo. There are two types of Herpes Simplex: Herpes Simplex 1 and Herpes Simplex 2. Although you can't cure either you can minimize outbreaks of the virus with antiviral. You can even spread herpes when you do not have herpes outbreak, making it even more important to know that you have it and how to treat it.
If you are having genital herpes outbreak, wash your hands after using the bathroom or having any contact with blisters or sores. This is.